[RITUAL ABUSE, SATANISM, OCCULTISM, JOURNAL ARTICLES; (Eclectic): http://www.xroads.com/rahome/ra_arti1.htm ]
[excerpts inclusive of subjects "Satanism" and "Occultism"]
RA SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Allen, C. and Metoyer, P., "Crimes of the occult," Police, February, 1987.
Talks about practices and criminal activities of various cults. Offers clues and signs of occult criminal activity to law enforcement personnel.
- Alexander, David., "Trouble on the antichrist beat. (satanism in the press)," The Quill, Vol. 78, No. 4, May 1990, p. 12(1).
Satanism--Analysis: Cults--Public opinion.
- Belitz, Jerald, "Satanism as a response to abuse: The dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths," Adolescence, Vol. 27, No. 108, 1992, pp. 855--872.
Male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Families that are abusive, devalue or invalidate the abused child's feelings, blame the child for the family's' problems, and view the world in rigidly moralistic terms create environments in which the youths are likely to identify with the aggressor and label themselves as evil. These youths may use satanic involvement as a means of legitimizing their experience and differentiating from a negati vely enmeshed and/or abusive family system. In this paper, the etiological factors and treatment approaches of 10 hospitalized boys who had voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence are described, and 2 case illustrations are given.
- Belitz, Jerald, "Satanism as a response to abuse: The dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths," Family Therapy, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1994, pp. 81--98.
Examined satanic involvement among 10 boys (aged 12--17 yrs) in inpatient psychiatric treatment and presented a theoretical context for understanding and treating these adolescents. Ss who had been admitted over a 3-yr period reported repeated voluntary i nvolvement in group satanic activities, starting in adolescence or preadolescence. Ss had been physically and/or sexually abused, in many cases by 1 or both parent figures. The etiological' factors of Ss are described, and 2 case illustrations are provide d. Case 1 was a 15-yr-old White boy who was admitted because he planned to kill 13 people, including himself. Case 2 was a 17-yr-old Hispanic boy who was admitted because of suicidal behavior, depression, aggressive outbursts, and polysubstance abuse. Satanic cults offered membership in a group where there was no rejection. Since the abuse had enraged and betrayed Ss, t he cults became a welcome haven.
- Boston, G. Robert, "Santeria: animal sacrifice religion comes out of the shadows," Church and State, Vol. 41, January 1988, pp. 10--11.
- Bourget, Dominique, "Satanism in a psychiatric adolescent population," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 33, No. 3, April 1988, pp. 197--202.
In a university affiliated adolescent psychiatric facility, providing approximately 250 consultations per year, an unexpectedly high prevalence of preoccupation with satanism was found in referred adolescents. Information about 8 cases is presented to ide ntify common characteristics among Ss. Initially, a link between the marginal cult belief and general maladjustment was hypothesized, specifically delinquent behavior. Findings confirm this trend and show a significant impairment in the social adjustment of these Ss. A high prevalence of family disruption and parental abuse as well as a wide range of psychiatric symptoms were also found in the Ss. (French abstract)
- Bruce, Alistair J., "Orkney - a practitioner's view. (Satanic child abuse) (Great Britain)," Solicitors Journal, Vol. 135, No. 14, April 12, 1991, p. 432(1).
Scotland--Legal system; Child molesting--Investigations; Criminal justice, Administration of--Social aspects; Great Britain; Scotland
- Bucky, Steven F., "The relationship between training of mental health professionals and the reporting of ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder symptomatology," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1992, pp. 233--238.
Surveyed 433 mental health professionals in San Diego County, California, concerning ritual abuse and multiple personality disorder (MPD). Results show no differences across disciplines/licenses in frequency of report of MPD diagnosis, ritual abuse patients seen, or presence of symptom clusters that may be associated with diagnosis of either ritual abuse or MPD. However, data suggest that a cluster of symptoms considered representative of several linked syndromes may become more tightly tied to a single diagnosis through the mechanism of workshop training.
- Burket, Roger C., "Emotional and behavioral disturbances in adolescents involved in witchcraft and Satanism," Journal of Adolescence, Vol. 17, No. 1, February 1994, pp. 41--52.
Explored the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients with occult interests would manifest different psychopathology and behavioral disturbances than their hospitalized peers. The inpatient medical records of 157 consecutive adolescent (aged 13--17 yrs) admissions to a private psychiatric hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The 10 individuals with interest in witchcraft or Satanism had significantly more diagnoses of identity disorder, alcohol abuse, and hallucinogen abuse. Half of the Ss reported a history of self-mutilation. Although 50% of the occult group had arrest histories, none were for violent crimes. There were no significant differences in the criminal behaviors between those with and without interest in the occult.
- Campbell, Beatrix, "Hear no evil: the police in Notts want to 'kill off once and for all' stories of satanic abuse," New Statesman and Society, Vol. 3, No. 123, October 19, 1990, p. 10(2).
- Clark, Cynthia M. "Deviant adolescent subcultures: Assessment strategies and clinical interventions." Adolescence; 1992 Sum Vol 27(106) 283-293
Presents assessment strategies, preventive methods, and clinical interventions to assist clinicians working with teenagers involved with deviant subcultures: satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of the teens' needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliations, which provide a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Prevention of alienation through family, school, and peers may minimize deviant subculture involvement. In cases for which prevention is not effective, clinical treatment and intervention may be necessary. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in their approach to treatment.
- Clark, Cynthia M, "Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism," Adolescence, Vol. 29, No. 114, 1994, pp. 461--468.
Discusses the psychosocial needs of adolescents involved with Satanism (a recognition of Satan as a charismatic figure honored and exalted by his followers). Allegiance to the cult may bring a sense of belonging, mastery and structure, a feeling of power and control, an extreme form of rebellion, satisfaction of curiosity and relief from boredom, a sense of self-esteem, and validation of anger. A continuum of deviant cultism is posited that extends from experimental, social/recreational, and situational u se to intensified and/or compulsive use and chronic addiction. As adolescents become more involved with Satanism, withdrawal from normative society increases, secretiveness intensifies, and antisocial behaviors become more prevalent. It is critical to foc us therapy on the psychosocial needs being met rather than on attempting to understand the intricate details of the Satanic practice itself.
- Clark, J. G., "Cults," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 242, 1979, pp. 279--281.
- Clifford, Marvin W. "Social work treatment with children, adolescents, and families exposed to religious and satanic cults." Social Work in Health Care; 1994 Vol 20(2) 35-59
Discusses issues affecting children, adolescents, and their families who have been involved with religious or satanic cults at many levels and suggests efforts to help them. The role of the social worker in treating clients who have been exposed to cult practices focuses across 4 areas: educational, practice, legal, and research. A case example with a 3-yr.-old girl illustrates the legal issues a social worker may face. To examine these issues an exploratory pilot survey was sent to 12 clergy members, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists with some experience in treating children, adolescents, and family members involved in a cult. Two mental health workers were also identified. Results provide information on the issues affecting children, adolescents, and families exposed to cults and describe helpful interventions used by mental health professionals.
- Comstock, Christine M., "Consistency with clinical experience versus sound theory: A response to Rosik," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol 20, No. 3, 1992, pp. 226--228.
Comments on the article by C. H. Rosik (see PA, Vol 80:18558) and suggests that the psychoanalytic tradition of relating to an observing ego makes it unnecessary to conceptualize the internal self helper (ISH) as paranormal. There is danger in accepting a patient's self-report as literal truth, since he/she may confuse functional with structured truth, thereby further confusing the clinical picture. The question of whether the perceptions of an ISH held by Rosik's patient are her own or those she believes her therapist holds or wants to hold is addressed.
- Coons, Philip M., "Reports of satanic ritual abuse: Further implications about pseudomemories," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 78, No. 3, Part 2, Special Issue, June 1994, pp. 1376--1378.
To investigate the possibility that patients' reports of childhood satanic ritual abuse (SRA) may not be valid, a retrospective chart review was conducted on 29 patients who presented to a dissociative disorders clinic and reported histories of SRA. Data support the notion that such "memories" can be accounted for, in part, by the misapplication of hypnosis or regressive therapies.
- Coons, Philip M., "Factitious disorder (Munchausen type) involving allegations of ritual Satanic abuse: A case report," Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 1990, pp. 177--178.
Presents the case of a 25-yr-old woman who was hospitalized after' threatening suicide. The S alleged that she had been the victim of ritual Satanic abuse. A careful evaluation, including history taking, clinical observation, request for collateral inform ation, and psychological testing, failed to corroborate her story and pointed instead to a diagnosis of factitious disorder of the Munchausen type.
- Cowper, Francis, "Satanism resurgent. (London letter)," New York Law Journal, May 19, 1986, Vol. 195, p. 2, Col. 3. SUBJECTS: Knight, Derry Mainwaring--litigation; Satanism--litigation; Fraud--litigation; Great Britain.
- Curran, David K., "Why Troubled Teenagers Might Turn to Satanism," American School Board Journal, Vol. 176, No. 8, August 1989, pp. 12--14, 39.
Adolescent involvement in satanism is a symptom, not the actual ailment. Having counseling or mental health personnel in a high school allows needy students to refer themselves for counseling. Musical preference is a weak predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward the occult and satanism.
- Damphousse, Kelly R., "Did the devil make them do it? An examination of the etiology of Satanism among juvenile delinquents," Youth and Society, Vol. 24, No. 2, December 1992, pp. 204--227.
Investigated the power of unique and common explanations (defined in terms of social learning theory (SLT)) to account for Satanism (STN) among 530 incarcerated youthful offenders (aged 10-17 yrs). According to SLT, low parental and educational attachment increase participation in deviant activity. 55 Ss identified themselves as Satanists. Results show significant positive relationships between STN and key SLT variables, suggesting that involvement in STN may not have a common etiology with other forms of deviance. Satanists were even more unattached to conventionality via parents and schools, even more attached to peers, and even less attached to delinquent peers than their nonsatanically involved counterparts. Whites with higher IQs and with friends in STN were more likely to be involved in STN themselves.
- DelCour, Julie. "Wild parties, satanism - and death (Prentice Antwine Crawford trial)," The National Law Journal Vol. 10, No. 41, June 20, 1988, p. 10. SUBJECTS: Crawford, Prentice Antwine--litigation; Satanism--litigation; United States.
- DeMause, Lloyd (1994). "Why Cults Terrorize and Kill Children." The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 505-518.
Refutes critics who suggest that investigation of satanic ritual abuse (SRA) is a "witch hunt," noting that those who advocate this view and the false memory theory are often molesters themselves. It is noted that many case histories are available that document SRA of children and that the most credible histories involve reports by children who have recently been abused by cults, rather than reports based on adult recollections. The psychodynamics of cultic ritual are discussed; the delusional absorption of children's power is suggested as central to the group fantasy behind SRA. The applicability of these same cultic psychodynamics to the ritual of war is addressed.
- de Young, Mary. (1994) One face of the devil: the satanic ritual abuse moral crusade and the law. Behavioral Sciences & the Law Autumn 1994, v.12, n4, 389-407.
Discusses the spread of allegations of satanic ritual abuse of children over the last decade. The allegations are so horrific that a moral crusade comprised largely of psychotherapists, survivors, religious fundamentalists, and law enforcement professionals has risen up in response to them. The claim of the moral crusade that satanic ritual abuse of children is an exigent social problem is analyzed through a review of the data on the organization of such cults, cult roles and rituals, motivation of cults, abuse symptomatology in children and adults, and reliability of information. The symbolic content of the moral crusade against these allegations of ritual abuse is discussed in terms of the creation of moral crusades at times of rapid social changes. The impact this moral crusade is having on the law is noted.
- Doland, Virgina M, "Satanic ritual abuse and determinate meaning: a response to Professor Ellis [pp. 274--277]," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, Fall 1992, pp. 278--279. Sean Manchester asked that the summary of this article be removed.
- Edwards, Louise M., "Differentiating between ritual assault and sexual abuse." Special Issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children. Journal of Child and Youth Care, Special Issue 1990, pp. 67--89
Discusses signs and symptoms that differentiate the sexual assault victim from the ritual assault (RA) victim. Symptoms often seen in RA victims include problems with menstrual periods, panic at the sight of blood, unusual symbols in art work, and unusua l fear of telling or talking about sexual assaults. RA victims may also demonstrate a need for emotional support, inability to accept or know caring, inability to make choices, and preoccupation with death, dying, and phases of the moon. Other signs of RA include brainwashing, paranoid and cynical attitudes toward authority figures and life, self mutilation, fear of the dark and night terrors, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorder problems.
- Ehrensaft, Diane, " Preschool child sex abuse: the aftermath of the Presidio case," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 62, No. 2, April 1992, pp. 234--244.
Abstract: A case study is presented of girls who were among the preschool victims of sexual abuse linked to occult rituals that occurred at the Presidio Army Base Child Development Center. Components of the trauma, together with its effects on the victim s and their families, are investigated, and implications for the mental health profession are discussed.
Emerson, Shirley, & Syron, Yvonne. "Adolescent satanism: Rebellion masquerading as religion." Special Issue: "Rethinking uncertainty and chaos: Possibilities for counseling." Counseling and Values; 1995 Jan Vol 39(2) 145-159
Describes the authors' findings from 7 yrs of observing, interviewing, and counseling 143 adolescents involved in satanism in the Southwest. A case example is given. Signs, symptoms, definitions, and activities are described. Adolescent satanism is viewed as a rebellion and an effort to belong, in response to low self-esteem, peer difficulty, and isolation. Satanism provides a gang culture and feelings of power to compensate for powerlessness and deprivation. Male members have a need to belong, follow, and seek power or revenge. Female members are nihilistic, anorexic, and dependent on the leader for nurturance. Counselors need to address underlying individual and family pathology, suicidal and homicidal ideation, self-mutilation, drug abuse, sexual abuse, and victimization by control. Concurrent family assessment is imperative to examine the satanic involvement in a family system context.
- Feldman, Gail Carr. (1995) "Satanic ritual abuse: A chapter in the history of human cruelty." Journal-of-Psychohistory; 1995 Win Vol 22(3) 340-357
Presents a cultural and historical overview of practices attributed to satanic and criminal cults including violence, magic, human sacrifice, witchcraft, sadism, and satanism. Examples of criminal activities committed by satanic cults are presented. It is concluded that satanic crimes are being perpetrated in the US, and human sacrifice and cannibalism are still being practiced. State laws forbidding ritualized abuse of children and adults are noted.
- Fine, Gary Alan, "Satanic Tourism: Adolescent Dabblers and Identity Work," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 76, No.1. September 1994, pp. 70--72.
The attraction of some teenagers to Satanic symbolism, which communicates extreme pessimism, nihilism, and hopelessness, is distressing. Focusing on the trappings of teenage pseudo-Satanism is counterproductive; we should concentrate on the root causes of teenage crime--low self-esteem and poor social conditions--and not become distracted by faddish symbols of adolescent rebellion.
- Fine, Jason, "Seeking evil: the hell of prosecuting satanic ritual abuse (California)," California Lawyer, Vol.14, No. 7, July 1994, p. 50 (9). SUBJECTS: Akiki, Dale--Litigation; Satanism--Rituals; Child abuse--Litigation; Criminal justice, Administration of--Analysis; California.
- Forsyth, Craig J, "The theoretical framing of a social problem: Some conceptual notes on satanic cults," Deviant Behavior, Vol. 11, No. 3, July--September 1990, pp. 281--292.
After reviewing the evidence and reasons for a rise in activity and interest in the occult and satanic cults, this putative social problem is examined from a traditionalist and then a constructionist perspective. The traditionalists argue that increased a ttention given to satanic cults results in increased satanic worship, while the constructionists argue that this worship has not increased but is a constant activity getting more attention now that it is defined as a problem. There is no clear support for accepting either of these arguments. Rather, the explanation for this social problem seems to fall somewhere between the two perspectives.
- Frame, Randall L., "Putting Satan's work into perspective" [news; seminar, "Satanism and neo-paganism"], Christianity Today, Vol. 30, No. 7, April 18, 1986, p. 30. SUBJECTS: Enroth, Ronald \ Korem, Danny \ Magic \ Satanism \ Spiritual Counterfeits Project (Berkeley, Calif) \ Cults--United States
- Fraser, George A., "Satanic ritual abuse: A cause of multiple personality disorder," Special Issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children, Journal of Child and Youth Care, Special Issue 1990, pp. 55--65.
Describes the cases of 2 female patients who used dissociating or blocking of the memory to cope with their experience of sexual abuse as children. This defense often results in illnesses such as psychogenic amnesia and multiple personality disorder (MPD). The cases were derived from highly organized and secret Satanic cults that seem to pass from one generation to another. The cases illustrate not only that the ritual abuse may produce MPD, but also that the MPD may perpetuate the ritual abuse of new victims without the knowledge of the victim's primary personality.
- Friesen, James G., "Ego-dystonic or ego-alien: Alternate personality or evil spirit?" Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 197--200.
Describes differential diagnosis of personality states and evil spirits in satanic ritual abuse (SRA). Confusion surrounds SRA; the interrelatedness of SRA, multiple personality disorder, and spiritual warfare add to the confusion. Both the psychological and spiritual realms are considered important for healing and should be carried out together. Evil spirits are presented as oppressive supernatural states, not as personality states. Treatment may require unifying personalities and casting out evil spirit s. A diagnostic category (oppressive supernatural states disorder) is proposed with identifying guidelines.
- Gaffney, Edward McGlynn, "Animal sacrifice and religious freedom," Christian Century, May 13, 1992.
- Ganaway, George K., "Some additional questions: A response to Shaffer & Cozolino, to Gould & Cozolino, and to Friesen," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 201--205.
Reviews and comments on 3 articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18534), and J. G. Friesen (see PA, Vol. 80:18528) concerning satanic ritual abuse (SRA). The import ance of raising questions about the nature of the relationship between patients and therapists during psychotherapy and the need for closer scrutiny of the techniques being used to uncover and explore alleged trauma memories are affirmed.
- Garvey, Kevin and Blood, Linda Osborne, "Interesting times [critique of Satanism in America]," Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1991, pp. 151--190.
- Gelb, Jerome L., "Multiple personality disorder and satanic ritual abuse," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 27, No. 4, December 1993, pp. 701--708.
Contends that the increasing popularity of the multiple personality disorder and Satanic ritual abuse diagnoses does not reflect increased scientific validation of such disorders. Psychiatrists are urged to not promote treatment techniques which only per petuate and amplify symptomatology and dysfunction.
- Gerasimov, Dmitry, "Satanic tribe: who is behind the monks murder?" The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, Vol. 45, No. 18, June 2, 1993, p. 26 (1).
The ritual murder of Russian monks in April 1993 has raised questions about the proliferation of religious sects in that country. Evidence surrounding the murder indicates that the perpetrator was carrying out a cult-inspired sacrifice of the monks. A k nife marked with three sixes, and the method of stabbing suggest a possible connection to the Levites, who historically sacrificed gentiles on gentile holy days. The number of Russians who are murdered in mysterious, ritual ways, and the uncounted number of religious sects has raised public concern about their societal impact.
- Goodwin, Jean; Hill, Sally; Attias, Reina. (1990) "Historical and folk techniques of exorcism: Applications to the treatment of dissociative disorders." Dissociation 1990 Jun Vol 3(2) 94-101
Describes Christian and Jewish exorcism practices, together with techniques from other cultures, and relates elements of these techniques to the psychotherapeutic treatment of dissociative disorders. Common elements found in traditional exorcisms include (1) use of special diagnostic techniques; (2) use of incantations, scriptures, and music; (3) use of ritual objects; (4) physical interventions; (5) verbal confrontation of the possessing spirit; (6) aftercare; and (7) care to understand and avert risks to the exorcist. Familiarity with these techniques is useful when working with patients who allege that they are victims of sadistic ritual abuse and who may seek exorcism from traditional sources. The essential technical difference between exorcism and psychotherapy is that exorcism involves expulsion while psychotherapy involves integration. Cases of Christian and Jewish exorcism are presented.
- Gould, C. and Neswald, D., "Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD survivors of satanic ritual abuse," Treating Abuse Today, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1992, pp. 5--10.
This article presents a variety of practical treatment principles and useful clinical strategies for therapists contending with mind-control programming in multiple personality disorder and satanic ritual abuse clients. Offers good practical tips.
- Gould, C., "Satanic ritual abuse: Child victims, adult survivors, system response," The California Psychologist. Vol. 22, No. 3.
- Halperin, David A.. "The appeal of the impossible and the efflorescence of the unbelievable: A psychoanalytic perspective on cults and occultism." Cultic Studies Journal; 1992 Vol 9(2) 190-205
Presents a psychoanalytic perspective on the appeal of cults and occultism to adolescents. Writers (e.g., A. Crowley and A. Machen) whose work has contributed to the formation of occult and satanic groups, and motion pictures (e.g., Beetlejuice ) with occult themes are discussed. The relationship between adolescent suicide and films of the occult is explored. Case examples of 2 psychiatric patients (aged 16 and 19 yrs) are presented as illustrative.
- Hill, Sally, "Satanism: Similarities between patient accounts and pre-Inquisition historical sources," Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1989, pp. 39--44.
Describes satanic rituals (SRs) drawn by historians from pre-Inquisition primary sources to offer the possibility that patients who describe fragmentary flashback-like scenes of participation in SRs may not be delusional but may be describing fragmented or partially dissociated memories of actual events. As early as the 4th century elements of a satanic mass were well described; extending the historical search from 400 to 1200 A.D. yields only a few new elements including the ritual use of drugs, the circle, and ritual dismemberment of corpses. Two clinical accounts of SRs are compared with historical accounts. The possibility that a patient had experienced actual involvement in some bizarre and abusive ritual is suggested as a possible viewpoint to be explored in the therapeutic unravelling of such material.
- Hill, Sally and Goodwin, Jean R., "Demonic possession as a consequence of childhood trauma," Journal of Psychohistory, Vol. 20, No. 4, Spring 1993, pp. 399--411. ABSTRACT: In this chapter, we compare Freud's understanding of a seventeenth-century case of demon possession and exorcism with a modern case of a patient who had been involved in a satanic cult and had experienced demon possession, and who sought out exorcism as well as psychotherapy. NOTE: This article is taken from Sally Hill and Jean M. Goodwin, "Freud's notes on a seventeenth-century case of demonic possession: understanding the uses of exorcism," in Rediscovering childhood trauma: historical casebook and clinical applications, edited by Jean M. Goodwin, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 45--63.
- Hudson, Pamela S., "Ritual child abuse: A survey of symptoms and allegations," In the Shadow of Satan, The Ritual Abuse of Children. Journal Of Child And Youth Care, Special Issue 1990, pp. 27--53.
Conducted a telephone survey in April, 1988, regarding 24 abused children (aged 18 mo--3.5 yrs at the time of abuse) to formulate a list of symptoms and allegations most frequently noted by ritual-abuse survivors. Ss presented with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as indicated by severe separation anxiety, fear of starting school, avoidance of their own bed, refusal to sleep alone, and fear of the dark. Ss spoke of being sexually molested by adult strangers or day-care workers, being threatened with murder if they revealed the abuse, and being photographed during the abuse. All Ss had medical findings commensurate with sexual assault. Other ritual-abuse survivors interviewed include adult survivors forming their own organizations and teenagers involved with the occult and Satanism. A ritual child abuse questionnaire is appended.
- Ivey, Gavin, "Psychodynamic aspects of demonic possession and Satanic worship" South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 1993, pp. 186--194.
Develops an object relations psychoanalytic model of both involuntary demonic possession (DP) and voluntary Satanic ritual participation. A case study of a man involved in Satanic activities is used to advance the idea that the internalization of a bad pa ternal object constitutes the developmental nucleus of DP. The intrusive return of the projected bad object relation gives rise to the experience of DP. In voluntary Satanic worship, however, a different dynamic involving the individual's identification w ith the bad object suggests itself. The unconscious motivation for this identification arises from the child's experience of vulnerability and powerlessness at the hands of the persecutory parent. Identification with this bad object, symbolized by Satan, gives the individual a sense of personal power and control over his/her life. Satanic involvement thus compensates for the original childhood narcissistic injury. (Afrikaans abstract).
- Ivey, Gavin, "The psychology of Satanic worship," South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 1993, pp.180--185.
Addresses the allegations of widespread Satanic activity in South Africa by defining the concepts of demonic possession and Satanism, tracing its history, locating the sociological context of its movement, and discussing the factors predisposing individuals to Satanic involvement. It is argued that the apparent increase in Satanic activity is related to a socioeconomic context of radical cultural change, turmoil, and social instability. Contemporary White a dolescents, feeling alienated, anxious, and powerless, are attracted to Satanism as a means of obtaining magical power and control over their destiny. Other predisposing factors include low self-esteem, lack of cohesive identity, drug abuse, and pathogeni c familial interaction. Satanism also meets specific psychological needs that are not met by other forms of religious worship. The diagnostic status of demonic possession in clinical psychology is examined. (Afrikaans abstract).
- Jenkins, Carol A., "Sociological argument applied to a historical example of deviance: A response to Professor Victor," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fal l 1992, pp. 254--256.
Analyzes and critiques J. S. Victor's (see PA, Vol 80:17962) application of a sociological argument to the 1988 satanic abuse scare in Rochdale, England. Questions relate to why the religious collectivity in Rochdale assigned satanic ritual abuse behavior to a "deviant" category. Victor's failure to suggest the range of alternative theoretical paradigms used to explain collective behavior and the linkages that exist between ideology, social action, and collective response is criticized.
- Jonker, Fred, "Reaction to Benjamin Rossen's investigation of satanic ritual abuse in Oude Pekela," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 260--26 2.
Responds to B. Rossen's (1989) criticisms of F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker's (see PA, Vol 78:24598) handling of an alleged satanic ritual abuse incident in Oude Pekela. This response criticizes the quality of Rossen's scientific work, especially in respect to his judgments made without having had direct contact with the children, their parents, or other principals in the incident.
- Jonker, Fred, "Safe behind the screen of 'mass hysteria:' A closing rejoinder to Benjamin Rossen," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of' knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 267--270 .
Expresses concern with continuing myths about the Oude Pekela incident of alleged satanic ritual abuse, which may be derived from and perpetuated by the misconceived and factually inaccurate allegations of B. Rossen (1989; see also PA, Vol 80:17946). F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker indicate that they chose to believe the children involved in the Oude Pekela incident while Rossen did not and attributed the whole incident to "mass hysteria." Jonker and Jonker-Bakker stress their customary level of objectivity and professionalism as physicians and scientists.
- Jones, David P. "Ritualism and child sexual abuse." Child Abuse and Neglect; 1991 Vol 15(3) 163-170.
Discusses aspects of ritualism and child sexual abuse (CSA) by examining attempts to investigate cases; the issue of credibility; and suggestions for practice, policy, and research. Most cases of CSA include an element of psychological abuse. It is argued that the terms "ritualistic abuse" and "satanic abuse" be dispensed with because most CSA involves ritual practice and therefore use of these terms may be misleading and inflammatory.
- Kam, Katherine, "Ritual killings have satanic overtones," Christianity Today, Vol. 32, September 2, 1988, pp. 52--54.
- Kelley, Susan J. (1988). "Ritualistic Abuse: Dynamics and Impact." Cultic Studies Journal, 5(2), 228-236.
Examines the nature and impact of ritualistic abuse (RA) of children, focusing on cult-based RA. RA refers to repetitive and systematic sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of children by adults as part of cult or satanic worship. It is noted that RA may be either intra- or extrafamilial. As a result of RA, victimized children experience persistent psychological disturbances. Implications of RA for practice, policy, and research are discussed.
- Kelley, Susan J. (1989). "Stress Responses of Children to Sexual Abuse and Ritualistic Abuse in Day Care Centers." Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4(4), 502-513.
Examined the effects of sexual abuse (SA) and ritualistic abuse (RA) of children in day care settings. 32 4-8 yr old SA Ss were compared with 35 ritually abused and 67 nonabused (non-A) 4-11 yr old Ss on the Child Behavior Checklist, the SCL-90, and an impact of event scale. SA Ss had significantly more behavior problems than did the non-A Ss. Sexual abuse involving RA (i.e., repetitive and systematic sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of children by adults as part of cult or satanic worship) was associated with increased severity in the extent of the sexual, physical, and psychological abuse experienced.
- Kelly, Paul, "Satanism and vulnerable adolescents," Journal of Pastoral Counseling, Vol. 25, 1990, pp. 101--110.
- Kent, Stephen A., "Deviant scripturalism and ritual satanic abuse: possible Judeo-Christian influences (part 1)," Religion, Vol. 23, NO. 3, July 1993, p. 229 (13).
Intergenerational satanism is rejected by some as unrealistic and in the imagination of perverted minds. Religious texts and traditions are overlooked as possible sources for the development of satanic rituals. A major reason for the accounts of the su rvivors of these experiences failing to attain credibility is that the experiences seem divorced from everyday life.
- Kent, Stephen A., "Possible Masonic, Mormon, Magick and Pagan influences (Deviant Scripturalism and Ritual Satanic Abuse, part 2)," Religion, Vol. 23, No. 4, October 1993, p.355 (13).
A comparison of the accounts of people who have survived ritual satanic abuse experiences, with doctrinal precedents for satanic ritual abuse in deviant forms of Masonic, Mormon, Magick and Pagan cultures, reveals that satanists such as Aleister Crowley and Albert Pike were inspired by these cultures. Crowley's rituals demonstrate his obsession with sex. Bodies, videos of rituals, ritual books and artifacts are necessary to supplement the identification of the sources of these rituals.
- Ladd, Jennifer. "Logotherapy's place for the ritually abused." International-Forum-for-Logotherapy; 1991 Fall Vol 14(2) 82-86
Provides a personal account from an adult survivor of ritual satanic abuse and incest during childhood. The author discusses how exposure to logotherapy and logophilosophy strengthened her will to follow and enjoy her life goals.
- LaFontaine, J. S., "Allegations of sexual abuse in satanic rituals," (response to article by Stephen Kent in Vol. 23, issues 3 and 4, p. 229 and 355). Religion, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 1994, p. 181 (4).
Stephen Kent's views on satanic abuse are based on unsound premises and lacks objectivity. His claim that only a believer who has experienced faith can understand religion destroys the legitimacy of all academic discussions. Kent arrives at conclusions without evaluating the authenticity of data. The article relies on conclusions derived from questionable data.
- Lanning, Kenneth V., "Ritual abuse: A law enforcement view or perspective," Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 15, 1991, pp. 171--173.
Argues that the use of the terms "ritualistic" and "satanic" in discussing the abuse of children is confusing, misleading, and counterproductive. If the guilty are to be successfully prosecuted, the innocent exonerated, and the victims protected and treat ed, better methods to evaluate and explain allegations of ritualistic child abuse must be developed.
- Lanning, Kenneth V., "Satanic, occult, ritualistic crime: a law enforcement perspective," The Police Chief, Oct 1989, Vol. 56, No. 10, October 1989, p. 62 (11). SUBJECTS: Satanism--Analysis; Crime--Religious aspects; Cults--Crime; Law enforcement--Social aspects; Child abuse--Analysis; Occultism and criminal investigation--Analysis.
- Leavitt, Frank, "Clinical correlates of alleged satanic abuse and less controversial sexual molestation," Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1994, pp. 387--392.
Examined whether patients who report satanic ritual abuse (SRA) share symptomatology that differs from symptomatology shown by patients who have suffered other forms of sexual abuse. Measures of general psychopathology and dissociation were administered to 39 patients alleging SRA and to 48 patients alleging less controversial forms of sexual trauma. Ss were women alleging a history of sexual abuse starting prior to the age of 12, involving penetration, and lasting for a period of at least 12 mo. High but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology characterized both patient groups. Key differences were limited to dissociative symptomatology. Patients alleging SRA reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with multiple personality disorders. (French & Spanish abstracts).
- Lotto, David J., "On witches and witch hunts: Ritual and satanic cult abuse," Special Issue: Cult abuse of children: Witch hunt or reality? Journal of Psychohistory, Vol. 21, No. 4. Spring 1994, pp. 373--396.
Suggests that the recent increase in allegations of ritual cult abuse (RCA) and satanic ritual abuse is analogous to episodes of witch hunts throughout history. The reliability of hypnotic memory, which is often the basis for allegations of abuse, is questioned, and it is noted that many patients who report memories of RCA suffer from multiple personality or other dissociative disorders. Alternative possible explanations for the large number of RCA allegations are offered. It is suggested that many therapists who believe in the literal reality of stories of abuse justify their belief in the context of their knowledge of the prevalence of sexual abuse. The characterization of abuse reports as potential expressions of personal, group, and cultural fantasies and wishes is addressed.
- Lowney, Kathleen S. "Teenage satanism as oppositional youth subculture." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography Jan. 1995, v23, n4, p453(32).
Presents an ethnographic portrait of a coven of teenage Satanists and argues that the psychological, folkloric, and constructionist perspectives on Satanism are lacking an important voice, that of the adolescent Satanists themselves. Young adults involved with a coven were interviewed. Satanism allows the adolescents to challenge the dominant culture's norms and values. However, lacking social power, this coven primarily used a symbolic critique, through the creation of a Satanic style.
Satanism--Research; Teenagers--Social networks; Culture conflict--Research.
- Lutes, Chris, "Suicides blamed on music's satanic spell (heavy metal)," Christianity Today, Vol. 32, No. 5, March 18, 1988, p. 57 (2).
- Maharidge, Dale, "Many cases charging satanic rituals and mass child abuse filed, but few survive; gullible prosecutors or incredulous jurors?" The Los Angeles Daily Journal, Vol. 98, November 1, 1985, p.18.
- Matzner, Fredrick J., "Does satanism exist?" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 30, No. 5, September 1991, p. 848.
Criticizes B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer's (see PA, Vol. 78:24632) article, which suggests that orthodox satanic abuse of children does occur. The article fails to provide evidence supporting its description of satanic activity and fails to present a scientific approach to the issue.
- Mandell, Herbert E. & Schiff, Matthew. "Schizophrenia or terrifying reality? A supervisor's dilemma." Clinical Supervisor; 1993 Vol 11(2)
Clinicians are increasingly asked to assess and treat children and adolescents who are victims of trauma, including physical/sexual abuse, and to distinguish such trauma from psychosis. A case of an abused 16-yr-old male is presented who was misdiagnosed as schizophrenic on the basis of projective test results. Later, when the S revealed his extensive involvement with a Satanic cult, his regression and test results could be understood as resulting from the psychic trauma of the cult and his history of deprivation and abuse. Suggestions are made concerning how careful supervision can clarify such diagnostic dilemmas, making the best use of psychiatric and psychological testing tools.
- Maxwell, Joe, "Article claims Warnke's satanic past a fraud,"Christianity Today, Vol. 36, No. 9, August 17, 1992, p 50 (1).
Cornerstone magazine accused Warnke, author of The Satan Seller, of fabricating the autobiographical book which is used a justification for investigation of widespread Satanism.
- McCulley, Dale, "Satanic ritual abuse: A question of memory," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 22, No. 3, Fall 1994, pp. 167--172.
Cites researchers who point to the extreme malleability of human memory as evidence that accounts of satanic ritual abuse (SRA), especially those involving delayed memory, are fantasies implanted by incompetent clinicians. However, leading memory researchers such as B. van der Kolk (e.g., 1987 and 1993; see also PA, Vol. 76:33202) maintain that traumatic memories, which typically are engraved in the sensorimotor processes, are not subject to the same kinds of contamination that can affect normal memory. Traumatic (psychogenic) amnesia is a phenomenon known to mental health professionals for more than 100 yrs. The clinically observed characteristics of traumatic memory formation and retrieval match precisely the patterns of memory recovery exhibited by SRA survivors and strongly confirm the reality of their cult abuse.
- McCully, Robert S. The laugh of Satan: A study of a familial murderer. Journal of Personality Assessment; 1978 Feb Vol 42(1) 81-91
Presents the case report of an 18-yr-old who killed his mother, half-brother and step-father, and examines the imagery the S associated to 3 editions of inkblots, including the Rorschach and the Behn-Rorschach. Several of Jung's concepts, notably his view about the power of shadow-projections to influence conscious percepts and his philosophy about evil as a collective phenomenon, were used to speculate about ways to understand this S's extreme form of violence.
- McCully, Robert S. "Satan's eclipse: A familial murderer six years later. " British Journal of Projective Psychology and Personality Study; 1980 Dec Vol 25(2) 13-17
Presents data from a follow-up blind analysis of a 24-yr old male murderer's Rorschach responses. At the age of 18 the S had shot and killed 4 members of his immediate family. Comparative data from the 2 Rorschach administrations (right after the murders and again 6 yrs later) are presented and related to the S's long-standing interest in Nazism and the prominent religious imagery in his responses.
- McShane, Claudette, "Satanic sexual abuse: a paradigm," Affilia Journal of Women and Social Work, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1993.
A domination-legitimation-resistance paradigm for conceptualizing satanic sexual abuse is presented. The model explains why satanic sexual abuse is perceived as normal by both perpetrators and survivors of this form of abuse. Information about the barriers to resistance are also provided so social workers can be aware of the salient issues involved in satanic sexual abuse of females.
- Mercer, Joyce Ann, "'The Devil Made Me Do It:' Teens, Drugs, and Satanism," Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 1993, pp. 11--15.
Explores adolescent Satanism as a phenomenon of adolescent developmental issues, most frequently occurring in the context of chemical abuse. Explains what a cult is, reviews history of Church of Satan, identifies characteristics of adolescent Satanism, and provides a case study of 16-year-old male with chemical dependency who becomes involved in Satanic cult.
- Middleton, Warwick. (1994) "Further comments on multiple personality disorder." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; 1994 Mar Vol 28(1) 154-156
Responds to the letter by J. L. Gelb (see PA, Vol 81:21458) regarding multiple personality disorder (MPD) and satanic ritual abuse and emphasizes the association between childhood abuse and MPD. Brief observations pertinent to Gelb's comments are made, based on the author's clinical notes on 40 MPD patients.
- Moriarty, Anthony R., "Adolescent Satanic cult dabblers: A differential diagnosis," Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 13, No. 3, July 1991, pp. 393--404.
Attempts to assist the mental health counselor to more accurately evaluate the impact of Satanism by diagnosing adolescent Satanists from a differential perspective. The author reviews 4 types of adolescents likely to be associated with Satanism (psychopathic delinquents, angry misfits, pseudo-intellectuals, and suicidal impulsives). Case vignettes are given of 4 adolescents (aged 14--17 yrs) who represent each type. A different treatment strategy is recommended for each.
- Moriarty, Anthony, "Practical Aspects of Adolescent Satanism: A Response to Wynkoop," Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 1993, pp. 190--192.
Responds to previous article by Wynkoop critiquing Moriarty's article of adolescent satanism. Notes that author's (Moriarty) previous article addresses satanism from perspective of differential diagnoses and that Wynkoop's critique cites number of improvements that author believes strengthens original article. Notes that some of Wynkoop's points need further clarification and responds to Wynkoop.
- Moriarty, Anthony R., "Psychological dynamics of adolescent Satanism," Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol 12, No. 2, April 1990, pp. 186--198.
Describes the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Those processes are described in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. A model, called the web of psychic tension, is proposed to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Finally, 3 techniques for intervention with Satanists are briefly described.
- Mulhern, Sherrill, "Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical response," Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1991, pp. 609--611.
Critiques the article by W. C. Young, et. al. (see PA, Vol. 78:24666) concerning patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood. It is argued that independent of a clinical syndrome, the authors' own beliefs and the introspective therapeutic techniques employed could have contributed to the similar satanic content of the patient narratives.
- Mulhern, Sherrill A., "Ritual abuse: Defining a syndrome versus defending a belief," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 230--232.
Reviews research showing how satanic ritual abuse (SRA) training seminars proposed to mental health professionals between 1987 and 1990 constituted a form of proselytizing. Such presentations were designed to convert clinicians before they began listening to patients to believe in the plausible existence of satanic blood cults. Diagnostic and treatment techniques recommended in SRA seminars, as well as postulated explanations for patients' exacerbated clinical symptoms, presupposed the facticity of networks of organized groups of perpetrators. Patients' better interests are ill served when their therapists' "educated" ears have been deafened by uncritical belief.
- Mulhern, Sherrill, "Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: A sociohistorical perspective," Special Issue: Hypnosis and delayed recall: I, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 42, No. 4, October 1994, pp. 265--288.
Explores the historical and social underpinnings of the current epidemic of patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) who have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of those who have been caught up in the social delusion. (German, French & Spanish abstracts).
- Neswald, M. A., "Common 'programs' observed in survivors of satanic ritualistic abuse," The California Therapist, September/October, 1991.
This article examines the various types of cult programming while discussing the treatment of MPD and SRA.
- Neswald, D. and Gould, C., "Basic treatment and program neutralization strategies for adult MPD survivors of satanic ritual abuse," Treating Abuse Today, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1992, pp. 5--10.
- Nurcombe, Barry, "Does satanism exist?" Reply, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 30, No. 5, September 1991, pp. 848--849.
Responds to F. J. Matzner's (see PA, Vol. 79:9398) comments regarding B. Nurcombe and J. Unutzer's (see PA, Vol. 78:24632) article on ritual satanic abuse of children. Focus is on (1) police suspicions of the existence of an underground satanic network, (2) satanic practices depicted by writers as a parody of Christian ritual, and (3) proof of the existence of child-abusing pornographic rings and secret satanic cells.
- Ofshe, R. J., "Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: False memory confession due to dissociative state; mis-identified multiple personality and the satanic cult hypothesis," The International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. Xl, No. 3, 1992, pp. 125--156.
Presents the case of a 43-yr-old man who, after induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation, developed pseudomemories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudomemories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 mo. During this time, S, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt, and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed. An experiment demonstrated S's extreme suggestibility. It was concluded that the cult did not exist and S's confessions were coerced internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed S as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality.
- Ondrovik, Joann, "Is therapy science or religion, logic or faith? A response to Shaffer and Cozolino, Gould and Cozolino, and Friesen," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 210--212.
Comments on articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18534), and J. G. Friesen (see PA, Vol. 80:18528), which reference theology or spirituality in relation to clinical approaches to satanic ritual abuse. The comment stresses the importance of a faith in and understanding of the patient's reality and of treating that reality as it is verbalized in the clinical setting. It may not be important to classify abuse or torture to treat the patient effectively.
- Ondrovik, Joann, "A reaction to Rosik's 'Conversations with an internal self helper,'" Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 224--225.
Comments on the article by C. H. Rosik (see PA, Vol. 80:18558) concerning the concept of an internal self helper (ISH). The authors attempt to expand on Rosik's account of the history of the ISH, but agree with Rosik's views on (1) the conflict between theology and psychology in respect to the spiritual quality of the ISH and (2) implications for treatment without necessity of theological or scientific labels and prejudices.
- Paley, Karen S. (1992) "Dream wars: A case study of a woman with multiple personality disorder." Dissociation 1992 Jun Vol 5(2) 111-116
Discusses the use of dream work with patients having multiple personality disorder. Dreams can be used in clinical practice to aid in the breakdown of barriers erected to block memories of childhood abuse, recognize alter personalities, control malevolent alters, and identify and reduce conflicts among personalities. An illustrative case report of the treatment of a 28-yr-old female alleged satanic ritual abuse survivor demonstrates the vitiation of a perpetrator alter through dream work. The balance of power within the host personality shifted as non-perpetrating personalities lined up to isolate the abuser.
- Passantino, Bob, "Satanic ritual abuse in popular Christian literature: Why Christians fall for a lie searching for the truth," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 299--305.
Discusses some of the lay and secular popular literature that supports belief in satanic ritual abuse (SRA). The effects of SRA survivor stories and the importance of historical perspective on the SRA phenomenon are discussed. Biblical and common sense principles are enunciated for the sorting out of truth from untruth in relation to SRA sensationalism.
- Perrin, Robin D., "Memories of Satanic ritual abuse: the truth behind the panic," Christianity Today, Vol. 37, No. 7, June 21, 1993, p. 18 (6).
Christians and therapists are divided over whether to believe Satanic cults ritually abused thousands of women who claim to have discovered memories of abuse while in therapy. The complete lack of physical evidence and exploitation by the media are discussed.
- Peters, Ted, "Satanism: bunk or blasphemy?" Theology Today, Vol. 51, No. 3, October 1994, p. 381 (13).
The question of the nature of Satanism involves different types of it. There is the social phenomenon, the public Satanism, the isolated teenager, the serial killer and multiple personality disorder to consider. Some Satanism is not nonsense but genuine blasphemy. It is the most radical type of evil since it offends God while it is the pursuit of evil for the sake of evil.
- Putnam, F. W., "The satanic ritual abuse controversy." Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 15, 1991, pp. 175--179.
Comments on issues raised by W. C. Young, et. al. (see PA, Vol. 78:24666) and F. Jonker and P. Jonker-Bakker (see PA, Vol. 78:24598) who state that their purpose is to convey to clinicians information on a set of symptoms and behaviors that constitute evidence for a specific satanic ritual abuse syndrome. It is argued that the symptoms and behaviors are indistinguishable from the effects of many types of stress and trauma in children and do not constitute the specification of a unique satanic ritual abuse syndrome.
- Rockwell, Robert B. "Insidious deception." Journal of Psychohistory; 1995 Win Vol 22(3) 312-328
Contends that there is massive resistance to awareness of physical, sexual, and ritualistic abuse of children in US society. L. Wright's (1994) recounting of the story of Paul Ingram is used as an example of how the public is mislead into thinking that satanic ritual abuse does not exist. Media distortions and interference are used to filter the facts and to produce doubts. The expertise of authorities in the false memory syndrome movement is questioned. The campaign to attack therapists in the field through legal channels is reviewed. It is argued that perpetrators of abuse and organized satanic movements exert control over law enforcement, legal processes, and the media to distort the facts of satanic ritual abuse.
- Rogers, Martha L, ed. Satanic ritual abuse: the current state of knowledge. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, Fall 1992, pp. 175--305.
- Rogers, Martha L., "A call for discernment--natural and spiritual: An introductory editorial to a special issue on SRA," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 257--259.
Discusses research on satanic ritual abuse (SRA). SRA is defined, a Christian perspective to the topic is introduced, and the need is expressed to look hard at the clinical data and research findings. The issues discussed include whether religious perspective has an impact on an individual's beliefs or judgments about abuse and whether Christians are dealing effectively with the reality of abuse in their own communities.
- Rogers, Martha L., "The Oude Pekela incident: a case study of alleged SRA from the Netherlands," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, Fall 1992, pp. 257--259.
Describes a case of alleged Satanic ritualistic abuse that occurred during mid-1987 in the small village of Oude Pekela in the Netherlands. Data are presented from accounts taken from (1) a published report by 2 professionals involved at the time of the incident, (2) a report of the incident incorporated in a doctorandus degree thesis, and (3) professional commentary and reactions to this material.
- Rosik, Christopher H., "Conversations with an internal self helper," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 217--223.
Introduces the internal self helper (ISH) concept and suggests that the ISH has been observed in many persons with multiple personality disorder. Experiences in therapy with an ISH are presented for illustration. Focus is given to the ISH's self-reported nature and function, the dynamics of working with an ISH in therapy, and some initial guidelines for relating this and other apparent paranormal phenomena to the Christian world. A case is presented to describe the ISH encountered in treatment of a young woman with a 15-yr history of multiple sexual molestations beginning at age 4 yrs.
- Rosik, Christopher H., "Satanic ritual abuse: a response to featured articles by Shaffer and Cozolino, Gould and Cozolino, and Friesen," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 213--216.
Comments on 3 articles by R. E. Shaffer and L. J. Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18563), C. Gould and Cozolino (see PA, Vol. 80:18534) and J. G. Friesen (see PA, Vol. 80:18528) and 1 review of these articles by G. K. Ganaway (see PA, Vol. 80:18530) concerning satanic ritual abuse (SRA). Topics addressed include the value and limits of an "oppressive supernatural states disorder," different models of spiritual warfare, related ethical concerns, the possibility of cult-created alters, and the veracity of patients' SRA reports. A rationale is presented for professional dialog between divergent perspectives of SRA.
- Rossen, Benjamin, "Response to the Oude Pekela incident and the accusations of Drs. F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 263--266.
Responds to the attacks by F. Jonker and I. Jonker-Bakker (see PA, Vol. 80:17918) on B. Rossen's personal character and on the quality of his 1989 doctoral thesis regarding the alleged satanic ritual abuse incident in the village of Oude Pekela, Netherlands.
- Sachs, Roberta G., "The role of sex and pregnancy in Satanic cults," Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, Winter 1990, pp. 105--113.
Describes the sexual practices and abuse during pregnancy in Satanic cults and suggests that this may cause dissociative disorders to develop in (former) members. This occurs as a result of selective breeding for high dissociative ability and repeated trauma, which forces the continual exercise of' the dissociative defence in order to survive. Those that do survive have been conditioned since childhood not to reveal cult practices, and this secrecy may lead many health professionals to miss or overlook the signs and symptoms of past and present Satanic abuse and prevent the victims from receiving needed treatment.
- Scannell, Tim, "Occult literature: creative and involving or macabre and satanic?" English Journal, Vol. 76, February 1987, p. 22 (4).
- Schnabel, Jim "Chronic claims of alien abduction and some other traumas as self-victimization syndromes." Dissociation: 1994 Mar Vol 7(1) 51-62
Discusses the case of an alleged alien abduction (AA) victim in her late twenties who claimed a range of dissociation-related and traumatic experiences. There was a heavy thematic emphasis upon sexual abuse, extending back to a traumatic childhood nonabuse incident, for which she apparently was never amnesic. The AA syndrome and some or all narratives associated with multiple personality disorder and "Satanic ritual abuse" do not derive exclusively from severe exogenous trauma and may be more usefully viewed as self-victimization syndromes.
- Shaffer, Ruth E., "Adults who report childhood ritualistic abuse," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge, Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 188--193.
Interviewed 20 outpatients (aged 28--53 yrs) who reported memories of ritualistic abuse. Questions focused on the nature of the abuse and its perceived impact on interpersonal, occupational, and spiritual development. Ss entered therapy with similar psychological complaints. Reported psychiatric sequelae included dissociative, affective, somatization, and eating disorders. Abuse experiences were reported to have affected every aspect of their adult functioning. Only 1 S reported vague memories of ritualistic abuse before entering therapy. A composite clinical case study is presented based on the data to illustrate the psychotherapeutic process of uncovering memories.
- Sidey, Ken, "The horror and the hype: While satanism has been thrust into the limelight, experts are calling for careful analysis and reaction," (includes related article), Christianity Today, Vol. 33, No. 17, November 17, 1989, p. 48 (2).
- Sidey, Kenneth H., "Publisher withdraws satanism story ['Satan's underground' by L. Stratford]," Christianity Today, Vol. 34, February 19, 1990, pp. 34--35.
- Sotos, James G., "Devil gets his due: prison must accommodate satanic rituals," Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, Vol. 141, No. 3, January 5, 1995, p. 6, Col. 1. SUBJECTS: Howard v. United States--864 F. Supp. 1019 (D. Colo. 1994); Freedom of religion--Litigation; Satanism--Litigation; Prisoners-Religion; United States
- Spanos, Nicholas P., "Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: The social construction of memories," Special Issue: Hypnosis and delayed recall: I. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol. 42, No. 4, October 1994, pp. 433--446.
Examines research associated with past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs. (German, French & Spanish abstracts).
- Speltz, Amy M., "Treating adolescent satanism in art therapy," Special Issue: The creative arts therapies with adolescents, Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer 1990, pp. 147--155.
Attempts to call attention to what seems to be an expanding adolescent population interested in satanism. The primary goal of the therapist is to weaken the link with satanism between the patients' emotions and their art productions. For some patients, artwork can release emotions that were somehow satisfied by satanism. Some helpful techniques for therapists have been (1) avoiding acknowledgment of the sensationalism in the artwork, (2) discussing artistic techniques in the early stages when there is great resistance to the exploration of meaning, (3) exploring meaning when the patient is ready, and (4)developing objectification when the patient is not ready.
- Steck, Gary, "Satanism among adolescents: Empirical and clinical considerations," Adolescence, Vol. 27, No. 108, Winter 1992, pp. 901--914.
Reviews the literature on adolescent involvement in Satanism. Results from a pilot study with 8 adolescent Satanists (aged 14--16 yrs) are presented along with a case study to illustrate factors that may alert practitioners to adolescents who are susceptible to satanic influences. Interventions for dealing with this adolescent subpopulation are discussed.
- Taub, Diane E., "Satanism in contemporary America: establishment or underground?" The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 3, August 1993, p. 523 (19).
- Tennant-Clark, Cynthia M., Fritz, Janet J. and Beauvais, Fred. "Occult participation: its impact on adolescent development." Adolescence, Winter 1989 v24 n96 p757(16).
This study investigated the relationship between occult participation, substance abuse, and level of self-esteem in adolescents. Data were collected from 50 adolescents who ranged in age from 12 to 19 years and who spoke English as their primary language. The combined group of adolescents consisted of 25 clinical and 25 nonclinical youth.
- Thorne, Stephen B., "The role of suggestion in the perception of satanic messages in rock-and-roll recordings," Journal of Psychology, Vol. 116, No. 2, March 1984, pp. 245--248.
Examined the role of suggestion in the perception of hearing satanic messages in rock-and-roll recordings presented backward to 65 undergraduates. Ss were placed in 1 of 3 groups: (1) no suggestion regarding message; (2) suggestion that words could be distinguished in the record; and (3) suggestion' that satanic messages could be distinguished in the record. A significantly greater proportion of Ss in the 2nd group reported hearing more words than the members of the other groups. A significantly greater proportion of Ss in the 3rd group reported hearing more messages with satanic content than the members of the other groups.
- Thornton, Edward E., "Fragmentation anxiety and the balm of empathy: a pastoral care perspective on Satanism," Review and Expositor, Vol. 89, Fall 1992, pp. 515--526.
- Trostle, Lawrence C. "Nihilistic adolescents, heavy metal rock music, and paranormal beliefs." Psychological Reports; 1986 Oct Vol 59(2, Pt 1) 610
Data from a witchcraft scale completed by 66 adolescents (half of whom were self-identified "stoners" (actively engaged in demonic worship and satanic rituals) indicate that self-identification as a stoner was directly correlated with preference for heavy metal rock music.
- Trzcinski, Jon. "Heavy metal kids: Are they dancing with the devil?" Child and Youth Care Forum; 1992 Feb Vol 21(1) 7-22
Discusses the rise in popularity of heavy metal music with young people, and the associated increased concern among adults about its influence. It is alleged that heavy metal promotes violence, suicide, satanism, and the occult. An examination of adult reaction to rock and roll in the 1950s and 1960s and the diverse messages of heavy metal put such concerns in a different perspective. It is proposed that parents, teachers, and other caregivers achieve an awareness of what young people are hearing, assist them in critical listening, and open channels of communication about the place and meaning of music, including mutual discussion of values, ethics, and morality.
- Underwager, Ralph, "The Christian and satanism," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 281--287.
Asserts that it is not Christian doctrine or Christian faith that fuels the belief in a satanic conspiracy. Discipleship in the Christian tradition is inimical to the notion of a worldwide satanic conspiracy that brutalizes children and to any fear or anxiety about an organized satanic worshiping cult. There are no historical, theological, or psychological grounds for believing in the existence of such a conspiracy. Rather, scriptural and theological data confirm that Satan is a wholly vanquished foe whose sole remaining capacity is telling lies. The penal freedom from the law achieved in the Gospel permits the believer to accept the claims of God and to refuse to believe the lie of Satan.
- Van Benschoten, Susan C., "Multiple personality disorder and satanic ritual abuse: The issue of credibility," Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1990, pp. 22--30.
Presents characteristics of ritual abuse and discusses similarities and differences between child and adult multiple personality disorder (MPD) patients reports. Inevitable questions regarding the validity and accuracy of MPD patients' satanic abuse memories are explored. Substantiated occurrence of ritual abuse in contemporary, nonsatanic, dangerous cults is discussed as a framework for considering the authenticity of MPD patients' satanic abuse accounts. It is proposed that an attitude of critical judgment concerning reports of satanic ritual abuse is necessary to avoid either denying the issue or over-generalizing the nature and extent of the problem.
- Van der Hart, Onno, & Boon, Suzette. "Contemporary interest in multiple personality disorder and child abuse in the Netherlands." Dissociation: 1990 Mar Vol 3(1) 34-37.
Reviews the current history of multiple personality disorders in the Netherlands. Recent developments closely resemble those that have taken place in the US and Canada. Clinical, theoretical, and research developments are outlined, and the incidence of victims of satanic cult abuse in the Netherlands is discussed. The need for more international cooperation is expressed.
- Wass, Hannelore, et alia. "Adolescents' interest in and views of destructive themes in rock music." Omega Journal of Death and Dying; 1988-89 Vol 19(3) 177-186
In a survey of rock music preferences and views on themes about homicide, satanism, and suicide (HSS), 694 middle and high school students (aged 12-19 yrs) were administered a questionnaire of structured and open-ended questions. Nine percent of the middle school Ss, 17% of the rural, and 24% of the urban high school Ss were HSS rock fans. Three-fourths of these fans were males and nearly all were White. HSS fans more often claimed to know all the lyrics of their favorite songs than the non-HSS rock fans. HSS fans more often said young children should be permitted to listen to rock music with destructive themes and fewer of them believed that adolescents might commit murder or suicide after having listened to such songs.
- Wass, Hannelore, et alia. "Adolescents and destructive themes in rock music: A follow-up" Omega: Journal of Death and Dying; 1991 Vol 23(3) 199-206
Determined rock music preferences and views of themes advocating homicide, suicide, and satanic practices (HSSR) in 120 13-18 yr old offenders (77.5% male) in 2 youth detention centers. Ss were administered a questionnaire of Likert-type, categorical, and open-ended questions. 91 students were fans of rock music. Of those, approximately 54% were HSSR fans. HSSR fans were more likely to be White and school dropouts, to spend more time listening to music, to think it is harmless for young children to listen to HSSR music, and to assume that HSSR lyrics do not lead to destructive acts. Males and females, from intact and broken homes, were fans.
- Wass, Hannelore, et alia. "Factors affecting adolescents' behavior and attitudes toward destructive rock lyrics."
Explored the rock music preferences of 894 9th through 12th graders in rural, urban, suburban public, and metropolitan parochial schools. 17.5% were fans of rock music with lyrics that promote homicide, suicide, or satanic practices (HSSR). Parents' marital status and Ss' sex, race, and school environment were significant predictors of HSSR status. As compared with non-HSSR fans, the HSSR fans were more likely to have parents who were never married or remarried and less likely to have married parents. HSSR fans were more likely than expected to be male and White and enrolled in urban but not parochial schools.
- Webster, Sallye L. "Double homicide by a 17-year-old self-described Satanist." American Journal of Forensic Psychology; 1987 Vol 5(4) 5 20
Discusses the forensic evaluation of a 17-yr-old male self-described satanist indicted on a double homicide. Following suicide threats, the defendant was evaluated by a prison psychiatrist and a forensic case worker. Results from a battery of tests including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS--R), the Rorschach test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) are presented.
- Victor, Jeffrey S., "Fundamentalist religion and the moral crusade against satanism: The social construction of deviant behavior," Deviant Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 3, July--September 1994, pp. 305--334.
Presents a symbolic interactionist model of the social dynamics of moral crusades to define a new form of deviant behavior. It identifies the collective behavior processes through which a contemporary legend leads to the social construction of deviant behavior, particularly when underlying sources of social stress activate the search for scapegoats. The contemporary legend enables the claims of moral crusaders to reach a wide audience because their propaganda will appeal to familiar preconceptions of the nature of evil in society. The model was developed from research on the claims-making activity of fundamentalists in the moral crusade against satanic cult crime. Fundamentalist religion plays a central role in the social construction of satanic cult crime because it offers (1) a receptive ideology, (2) a well-established communication network, and (3) organizational resources for moral crusaders.
- Victor, Jeffrey S., "Ritual abuse and the moral crusade against satanism," Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 248--253.
Examines what accounts for widespread belief in allegations of ritual child abuse by satanic cults in the absence of any verifiable law enforcement or scientific evidence. It is hypothesized that allegations of ritual abuse are manifestations of the social construction of an imaginary form of deviance that is being promoted by a moral crusade against satanism. Events of a satanic cult ritual abuse scare in England are used to illustrate the collective behavior dynamics. Controversies surrounding claims about ritual child abuse can be best understood if they are studied in the social context of the moral crusade against satanism.
- Victor, Jeffrey S., "Ritual abuse and the moral crusade against satanism as deviant behavior; reply to C. A. Jenkins," Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1992, pp. 248--253.
- Wares, Donna, "The unleashing of memory; an unusual case involving child abuse and satanic cults results in an ambiguous conclusion (California)," California Lawyer, Vol. 11, No. 7, July 1991, p. 19 (2).
- Wheeler, Barbara R., "Assessment and intervention with adolescents involved in satanism," Social Work, Vol. 33, No. 6, November--December 1988, pp. 547--550.
Suggests guidelines for interventions with adolescents involved in Satan worship. The symbols and activities associated with satanism are described. It is suggested that adolescents become involved in satanism as an escape from feelings of alienation and isolation and because they are disconnected from community values and conventional peer-group activities. The individual motivation involved in satanism may be a need for power. Case examples of 2 15-yr-old males illustrate the problems in establishing ra pport with these clients in therapy and the need to distance such clients from their subculture. The goals of therapy for these individuals include motivational insight and resolution of identity and self-esteem issues.
- Wong, Bennet, "A case of multiple life-threatening illnesses related to early ritual abuse," Special Issue: In the shadow of Satan: The ritual abuse of children, Journal of Child and Youth Care, Special Issue 1990, pp. 1--26.
Describes the case of a 25-yr-old woman with a life-threatening lymphoma who had as a child been involved in ritualistic abuse. In group and individual counseling, the S was able to work through the meanings beneath many medical symptoms and overcome num erous episodes of unrelated cancers. The S believed that the cancers protected her, at times, from her memories and from the cult killing her when she refused to come back. The S also felt that the cancers permitted her to express her will in a way that i s distinct from the cult programming.
- Wynkoop, Timothy F., "Differential Diagnosis of Adolescent Satanic Cult Dabblers: A Critique of Moriarty," Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 1993, pp. 184--189
Notes that, in recent work, Moriarty proposed use of differential diagnoses with adolescent satanic cult dabblers and suggested new diagnostic nosologies. Examines Moriarty's work, scrutinizing its justifications, methodology, and technical aspects. Provi des suggestions for clarification of diagnostic typologies and directions for empirical research.
- Young, Walter C., Sachs, R. G., Braun, B.G., Bennett, G., and Watkins, R. T., "Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases," Child Abuse And Neglect: The International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1991, pp. 181--189.
Describes 37 patients (aged 18--47 yrs) with dissociative disorders who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults. Ss came from a variety of separate clinical settings and geographical locations and reported a number of similar abuses. The most frequently reported types of ritual abuse are outlined, and a clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), survivor guilt, self-abuse, unusual fears, sexualization of sadist ic impulses, indoctrinated beliefs, and substance abuse. Questions relating to issues of reliability, credibility, and verifiability of the Ss' reports are discussed. Two clinical vignettes involving 2 female patients (aged 30 and 38 yrs) with multiple personality disorder are presented. (F rench and Spanish abstracts).
- Young, Walter C., "Sadistic ritual abuse: an overview in detection and management," Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, Vol. 20, No. 2, June 1993, pp. 447--458. ABSTRACT: This article is organized to present the essential features that make up the clinical picture of sadistic ritual abuse in adults and children, to provide guidelines for appropriate interventions, to point out medical considerations common to this populati on, and to discuss the controversy about SRA within the medical and psychiatric professions.
Revised Aug 1, 1996
[excerpted/reformatted: boboroshi ] [original URL: http://www.xroads.com/rahome/ra_arti1.htm]
- The Ordur of Kaos Under Satan (TOKUS)
-- the underlying k@s that makes all this possible
- Satanism Archive
- Smackers -- self-described Satanist expressions
- Compare outsiders' descriptions of Satanism and satanism:
- Propaganda -- non-Satanist religious and academics
- Delusion -- 'satanic ritual abuse' fear-mongering
- Mother Church (CoE)
-- the progenitrix of eco-ethics
(c) 1999 email@example.com (nagasiva)
items referenced in this archive are
copyright the authors cited per the Berne standard.
Illustr. credits: "krampustile" was cybercrafted by tyagi nagasiva, scanned from a 1932 postcard printed by "Erika" with krampus on red and white background, 1998; 'Snake Bar Devils' is an improvement on the 'Authentic Candle of Desperation' packaging from Botanica Del Leon Rayon (Mexico) by t. nagasiva, 1998.
Related sites of interest:SATANITY, SATANISM, DEVILRY, AND INFERNALITY
The Gospel of Satan: the story of Jesus and the angels, from the perspective of the God of this World
Satanism Bibliography: composite booklist of relevant sources on Satanity and devildom, by category
Satanic Blood Pact: explanation of how, why, and when to make a blood pact with the Devil
Adversarial AEon Begins: the particular and specific incident of a Satanic Blood Pact described
Manifesto Satanika: a generalized Satanic sociopolitical manifesto, with a helpful elaboration
nocTifer: a tender-hearted Satanian (nagasiva yronwode) in all avenues of expression
Bookmarks in compilation from the Magus of the AEon of the Adversary
MAGIC, SPELLS, AND DIVINATION
Hoodoo in Theory and Practice by cat yronwode: an introduction to African-American rootwork
Southern Spirits: 19th and 20th century hoodoo accounts, with ex-slave narratives & interviews
Association of Independent Readers and Rootworkers: readings and hoodoo services
Hoodoo Library facilitating an education on conjure, and help procuring modern sources
Herb Magic: illustrated descriptions of magic herbs with free spells, and a way to obtain them
Free Spells from eclectic witches, Coven Kyklos, in their Book of Shadows, called "Spiritual Spells"
Lucky Mojo Spell Archives: love spells, money spells, luck spells, protection spells, and more
Mystic Tea Room: tea leaf reading, teacup divination, and a museum of antique fortune telling cups
Tarosymbolismatrix Tetraktypisciseferoticus: the symbolic foundation of a novel Tarot deck
Change Oracle: rudiments of Yijing (I Ching) and several means of using it for readings
Lucky W Amulet Archive by cat yronwode: an online museum of worldwide talismans and charms
Usenet FAQ Archive: arcane and spiritual FAQs and REFs, brought to you by Lucky Mojo
YIPPIE: the Yronwode Institution, bearing the standard of indigenous ethnomagicology
OCCULTISM, MYSTICISM, AND RELIGION
Arcane Archive: thousands of archived usenet posts on religion, magic, mysticism, and spirituality
Missionary Independent Spiritual Church: inter-faith; candle services; Smallest Church in the World
Sacred Sex: essays and articles on neo-tantra, karezza, sex magic, and sex worship
Aleister Crowley Text Archive: a multitude of texts by an early 20th century occultist